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Collection PH.BZ.002 - William Earl Betsch Photographs of Architectural Capitals in Istanbul, 1970
- 1970 (Creation)
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William Earl Betsch was born in East Orange, New Jersey on May 27, 1939. He received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Art History at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia in 1963. Afterwards, he studied under Richard Krautheimer at the Institute of Fine Arts at New York University (NYU). His Master’s thesis was entitled “Opus Sectile Pavements in the Early Christian Churches of Greece.” Betsch received a Master of Arts degree in Early Christian, Medieval, and Byzantine Art from NYU and continued his graduate work in the Department of the History of Art at the University of Pennsylvania. Supervised by Cecil Lee Striker, Betsch’s original project was to establish the chronology of the cisterns of Constantinople and determine the terminus ante quem for the capitals used in the cisterns. In 1970, he undertook a survey project in Istanbul for his dissertation research. While completing his survey project, he expanded the scope of his dissertation to the various stages of production, uses and re-uses, and impact of architectural capitals as an industry in Constantinople from the fourth through the sixth centuries CE. Betsch’s dissertation was entitled “The History, Production and Distribution of the Late Antique Capital in Constantinople” and was never published. Betsch completed his dissertation in 1977 and obtained a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Roman and Byzantine Art.
Betsch taught at the University of California, Riverside from 1970 to 1972. In 1972, he took a position at the University of Miami, Florida, where he remained as an Assistant Professor of Greek and Roman Art in the Department of Art and Art History in the College of Arts and Sciences until his retirement in 2013. Betsch specializes in the art and architecture of Constantinople and is involved in researching the development of architecture in the Classical Greek era.
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- College of William and Mary. “The Colonial Echo of 1961.” Colonial Echo 63 (1961). https://digitalarchive.wm.edu/handle/10288/2173.
- Forchheimer, Philipp, and Josef Strzygowski. Die byzantinischen Wasserbehälter von Konstantinopel. Vienna: Verlag der Mechitharisten-Congregation, 1893.
- Harrison, R. Martin. Excavations at Saraçhane in Istanbul. Vol. 1. Princeton, NJ; Washington, D.C.: Princeton University Press; Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1986.
- Institute of Fine Arts, New York University. “Theses for the Degree of Master of Arts.” Marsyas: Studies in the History of Art 14 (1969 1968).
- Johnson, Mark J. “Columns, Honorific.” In The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press, 2005-. http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195046526.001.0001/acref-9780195046526-e-1167.
- Kazhdan, Alexander, Alice-Mary Talbot, and Anthony Cutler. “Stoudios Monastery.” In The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press, 2005-. http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195046526.001.0001/acref-9780195046526-e-5152.
- Kleiss, Wolfram. Topographisch-Archäologischer Plan von Istanbul: Verzeichnis Der Denkmäler Und Fundorte. Tübingen: Wasmuth, 1965.
- Mango, Cyril. “Constantinople, Monuments of.” In The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press, 2005-. http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195046526.001.0001/acref-9780195046526-e-1228.
- Mango, Cyril. “Euphemia, Church of Saint.” In The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press, 2005-. http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195046526.001.0001/acref-9780195046526-e-1799.
- Mango, Cyril. “Golden Gate.” In The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press, 2005-. http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195046526.001.0001/acref-9780195046526-e-2118.
- Mango, Cyril. “Sergios and Bakchos, Church of Saints.” In The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press, 2005-. http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195046526.001.0001/acref-9780195046526-e-4917.
- Müller-Wiener, Wolfgang. Bildlexikon Zur Topographie Istanbuls: Byzantion, Konstantinupolis, Istanbul Bis Zum Beginn D. 17. Jh. Tübingen: Wasmuth, 1977.
- Restle, Marcell. Reclams Kunstführer: Istanbul, Bursa, Edirne, Iznik : Baudenkmäler Und Museen. Stuttgart: Reclam, 1976.
- Striker, Cecil Lee. The Myrelaion (Bodrum Camii) in Istanbul. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1981.
- Talbot, Alice-Mary, and Anthony Cutler. “Pantokrator Monastery in Constantinople.” In The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press, 2005-. http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195046526.001.0001/acref-9780195046526-e-4073.
Inventory and collection assessment were initially undertaken by Kate Herron, former ICFA intern, on June 9, 2008. In 2011, the ICFA staff decided to re-assess the collection and update the existing inventory according to William Betsch’s fieldwork notebook in order to make the collection more accessible. In October 2011, Ana Elisa de Campos Salles, a graduate intern from the School of Library and Information Science at The Catholic University of America, conducted research, examined the negatives, and compared each frame with Betsch’s notes. De Campos Salles also expanded the inventory to include detailed descriptions for each roll based on Betsch’s research and fieldwork descriptions. In February 2012, the project was taken over by Rebecca Calcagno, a graduate intern from the College of Information Studies at the University of Maryland. Calcagno undertook research, completed a first draft of the finding aid, digitized approximately half of the negatives (for access to the digitized files, consult with ICFA staff), and drafted a digitization guide stemming from her work on the Betsch collection. In February 2014, Alison Skaggs, a graduate intern from the College of Information Studies at the University of Maryland, began the work necessary to finalize the project. In May 2014, Skaggs completed the finding aid by expanding and standardizing the descriptions in the Collection Inventory and Description. The finding aid was edited by ICFA Archivist Rona Razon, ICFA Byzantine Research Associate Fani Gargova, and ICFA Manager Shalimar White in June 2014, and was finalized in August 2014.
Negative rolls have been described using information obtained from both Betsch’s notebook and original research conducted by ICFA’s interns. Betsch used both established terms, as well as his own naming conventions. For example, he described some capitals as “panel type w/ H. Sophia foliage / cap.” Quotation marks have been used when descriptions were transcribed directly from Betsch’s notebook and brackets have been used when descriptions were supplied by ICFA staff and interns.
Rolls A and B, while mentioned in Betsch’s notebook, were not included in the collection when it was donated to ICFA in 2008. Roll C, which is originally mentioned before Roll 54 in the notebook, has been listed in this finding aid after Roll 54.
The negatives were moved to ICFA cold storage for preservation purposes in 2014.