- ca. 1936-1950 (Creation)
Level of description
Extent and medium
1 folder of oversize drawings
2 boxes of microfilms and negatives
Name of creator
Name of creator
Albert M. Friend, Jr., attended Princeton University, and later became a professor at his alma mater. He also served in the First World War. At Dumbarton Oaks, he was appointed Senior Scholar in Residence (also known as the Henri Focillon Scholar) and was in charge of the research program ("Fontes" and "Archives of Byzantine Art," also known as "Archives" or "Research Archives") starting in the academic year of 1944-1945. In the same academic year, he initiated a project that would reconstruct or visualize the lost church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople; he was joined by Paul Underwood and Glanville Downey.
Friend died in New Jersey in 1956.
Immediate source of acquisition or transfer
Content and structure area
Scope and content
The collection consists of 6 boxes of records that contain: lecture and research notes; note cards; drafts for outlines and essays; bibliographies and lists of objects; and photographs of Byzantine art and architectural drawings. These items were primarily created by Paul Underwood between 1936 and 1950 and by Albert Mathias Friend, Jr. between 1945 and the mid-1950s.
The collection includes Underwood’s research papers as a graduate student in the Department of Art and Archeology at Princeton University and as a Junior Fellow and Assistant Professor of Art and Archaeology in the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. The materials illustrate Underwood’s research process for the two major research projects he conducted before becoming the Field Director of the Byzantine Institute in 1950: “The Fountain of Life in Manuscripts of the Gospels,” an article published in the Dumbarton Oaks Papers (hereafter, “The Fountain of Life”), and the reconstruction of the Church of the Holy Apostles. The collection also includes Albert Mathias Friend, Jr.’s research notes related to the Church of the Holy Apostles project and the original reconstruction drawings produced by Underwood, as well as photographs and negatives of the drawings.
Appraisal, destruction and scheduling
System of arrangement
Conditions of access and use area
Conditions governing access
Conditions governing reproduction
Language of material
Script of material
Language and script notes
Physical characteristics and technical requirements
Allied materials area
Existence and location of originals
Existence and location of copies
Related units of description
At Dumbarton Oaks:
- Albert M. Friend, Jr. Correspondence. Dumbarton Oaks Archives. http://www.doaks.org/library-archives/dumbarton-oaks-archives.
- The Byzantine Institute and Dumbarton Oaks Fieldwork Records and Papers, ca. late 1920s-2000s, MS.BZ.004. Image Collections and Fieldwork Archives.
- Dumbarton Oaks Research Archive, 1941-1943, MS.BZ.018. Image Collections and Fieldwork Archives. See: Box 8 and 9, “Constantinople: Church of the Holy Apostles and Church of St. Euphemia.”
- Irène J. Underwood, Oral History Interview Transcript. Dumbarton Oaks Archives http://www.doaks.org/library-archives/dumbarton-oaks-archives/oral-history-project/irene-j-underwood.
- Turkish Museums, 1962-1980. Dumbarton Oaks Archives. http://www.doaks.org/library-archives/dumbarton-oaks-archives.
At other institutions:
- Albert Mathias Friend Papers. Manuscripts Division, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections. Princeton University Library, Princeton, N.J. http://findingaids.princeton.edu/collections/C0924.
- Graduate Alumni Records, 1839-2012. Princeton University Archives, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections. Princeton University Library, Princeton, N.J. http://findingaids.princeton.edu/getEad?id=ark:/88435/sf268514t.
- Office of the Registrar Records, 1803-2009. Princeton University Archives, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections. Princeton University Library, Princeton, N.J. http://findingaids.princeton.edu/getEad?id=ark:/88435/2n49t1694.
Underwood, Paul A. "Notes on Bernini's Towers for St. Peter's in Rome," Art Bulletin 21, 3 (September 1939): 283-287.
Underwood, Paul A. “Drawings of Saint Peter's on a Pilgrim's Staff in the Museo Sacro.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 3, 1-2 (October 1939-January 1940): 147-153.
Underwood, Paul A. “Some Principles of Measure in the Architecture of the Period of Justinian,” Cahiers archéologiques: Fin de l’Antiquité et Moyen Âge 3 (1948): 64-74.
Underwood, Paul A. “The Fountain of Life in Manuscripts of the Gospels.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 5 (1950): 41-138.
Subject access points
- Research notes
- Photographic print
- Manuscript illumination
- Early Christian
- Virgin Mary
- Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople
- Nea Ekklesia in Constantinople
- Baptismal font
- Gospel book
- Primary source
- Christ Pantocrator
Place access points
Description control area
Rules and/or conventions used
Level of detail
Dates of creation revision deletion
- Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. Report. 1945-1946.
- Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. “Albert Mathias Friend, Jr. (1894-1956),” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 12 (1958): ii, 1-2.
- Kitzinger, Ernst. “Paul Atkins Underwood (1902–1968).” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23 (1969): 1-6.
- Sorensen, Lee. “Friend, Albert M[athias], Jr.” Dictionary of Art Historians. http://www.dictionaryofarthistorians.org/frienda.htm.
- Sorensen, Lee. “Underwood, Paul A[tkins].” Dictionary of Art Historians. http://www.dictionaryofarthistorians.org/underwoodp.htm.
- Weitzmann, Kurt. Sailing with Byzantium from Europe to America: The Memoirs of an Art Historian. München: Editio Maris, 1994.
This collection was identified within the archive of The Byzantine Institute and Dumbarton Oaks Fieldwork Records and Papers, ca. late 1920s – 2000s by Laurian Douthett, former Archivist Assistant, in the Summer of 2011. ICFA staff determined that Underwood’s research on the “Fountain of Life” and the Church of the Holy Apostles did not relate to any of the fieldwork projects that were conducted by the Byzantine Institute or Dumbarton Oaks. Since its relation to the Byzantine Institute and Dumbarton Oaks fieldwork archive was doubtful, ICFA staff believed that Underwood’s research papers should be a separate collection in order to fully highlight his various research projects as a graduate student at Princeton University and as a Junior Fellow and an Assistant Professor at Dumbarton Oaks, before he became the Field Director of the Byzantine Institute in 1950.