@Dumbarton Oaks

File 065 - Correspondence between Paul Underwood, “Bert,” and John D. Barrett of The Bollingen Foundation

Identity area

Reference code

DcWaDIC MS.BZ.004-01-01-03-065

Title

Correspondence between Paul Underwood, “Bert,” and John D. Barrett of The Bollingen Foundation

Date(s)

  • August 1950 – December 1951 (Creation)

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1 folder

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Name of creator

Underwood, Paul A. (Paul Atkins) (February 22,1902-September 22,1968)

Biographical history

Paul Underwood was born on February 22, 1902, in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, and died on September 22, 1968, in Knoxville, TN. He received his Bachelor of Science degree in Architecture with high honors from Princeton University in 1925. From 1929-1931, he practiced architecture in New York, but had to postpone his career in the field due to the Great Depression. During this time, Underwood traveled to Greece, where he stayed for approximately three years, and became interested in classical and medieval monuments. In 1935, Underwood pursued a graduate degree in the Department of Art and Archaeology at his alma mater and graduated in or before 1938. Afterwards, he took a teaching position at Cornell University, where he taught courses in the history of art. After completing his first publications in 1939-1940, Underwood successfully applied for a fellowship at Dumbarton Oaks.

As a junior fellow from 1943 to 1946, Underwood studied the Lateran Baptistery, the relationship of early Christian baptisteries to the tholoi, and the iconography of the “Fountain of Life,” as depicted in early Gospel manuscripts. This research resulted in an article, “The Fountain of Life in Manuscripts of the Gospels,” which was published in Dumbarton Oaks Papers (vol. 5, 1950). In February 11, 1946, the Trustees for Harvard University “voted to appoint Paul Atkins Underwood as Instructor of Byzantine Art and Archaeology at [Dumbarton Oaks for one year],” but they immediately promoted him to Assistant Professor of Byzantine Art and Archaeology in the same year until 1951. He was subsequently appointed Associate Professor of Byzantine Architecture and Archaeology in 1951-1955 (and Field Director of the Byzantine Institute, Inc., starting in 1951) and Professor of Byzantine Architecture and Archaeology in July 1960.

During his junior fellowship, Underwood, an architectural historian, joined Albert M. Friend, an art historian, and Glanville Downey, a philologist, to work on the reconstruction of the lost monument of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. During the 1948 Dumbarton Oaks symposium, “The Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople,” Underwood presented two papers entitled “The Architecture of Justinian’s Church of the Holy Apostles, Parts I and II.”

After 1951, Underwood devoted the majority of his time to the Byzantine Institute, Inc., having been appointed Field Director after the death of Thomas Whittemore, the Institute’s founder and director, in 1950. He held this position until 1964. During the transition period, Underwood continued the restoration and conservation work in Istanbul, and published several reports in Dumbarton Oaks Papers on the Byzantine Institute’s work at Hagia Sophia and Kariye Camii. Other endeavors under his directorship included: the uncovering of the 7th century pavement in the Church of the Pantocrator (also known as St. Savior Pantocrator or Molla Zeyrek Camii) that was carried out from 1954 to 1962; the restoration of mosaics in the Fethiye Camii (Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos) from 1949 to 1963; the conservation of a fresco discovered at the church of St. Euphemia in 1958; and the repair work in the Fenari Isa Camii (Lips Monastery) from 1960 to 1964. Also during this period, the Byzantine Institute’s conservators worked on the mosaic of the Transfiguration at the monastery of St. Catherine on Mt. Sinai in Egypt in 1959. All of these fieldwork projects led to extensive publications.

Name of creator

Friend, Albert Mathias, Jr. (1894-1956)

Biographical history

Albert M. Friend, Jr., was born in 1894 and died on March 23, 1956, in New Jersey. He attended Princeton University as an undergraduate in 1911 and as a graduate student in 1915. During the First World War, Friend served with the American Expeditionary Force in France in 1918. After his war service, he went back to Princeton University to continue his graduate studies. In 1921, Friend was appointed instructor, and in 1946 a professor in the Department of Art and Archaeology, succeeding Charles Rufus Morey as Marquand Professor of Art and Archaeology. At Dumbarton Oaks, he was appointed Senior Scholar in Residence (also known as the Henri Focillon Scholar) and was in charge of the research program ("Fontes" and "Archives of Byzantine Art," also known as "Archives" or "Research Archives") starting in the academic year of 1944-1945. In the same academic year, he initiated a project to reconstruct or visualize the lost church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. In this endeavor, he was joined by Paul Underwood and Glanville Downey. During the 1948 Dumbarton Oaks symposium, “The Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople,” he presented a paper entitled “The Mosaics of Basil I in the Holy Apostles, Parts I and II.” Friend’s other appointments in Dumbarton Oaks include: Chairman of the Board of Scholars (1946-1947) and Henri Focillon Visiting Scholar in Charge of Research (1947-1948). He was also the first Director of Studies from 1948 to 1954.

Name of creator

Barrett, John D. (1903-1981)

Biographical history

Born in New York, Barrett attended Yale University and traveled widely. He began to work with the Bollingen Series in 1945, eventually becoming editor and later president of the Bollingen Foundation. Barrett was involved with publishing the works of C.G. Jung and other books on analytical psychology.

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Relates to the work at Kariye Camii, Pammakaristos, and Hagia Sophia in Istanbul and the unofficial offer to Underwood to become the Director of the Byzantine Institute

"Bert" refers to Albert Mathias Friend, Jr.

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Related right

The Byzantine Institute and Dumbarton Oaks Fieldwork Records and Papers, ca. late 1920s-2000s

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Research

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Rights note(s)

Preferred citation: The Byzantine Institute and Dumbarton Oaks Fieldwork Records and Papers, ca. late 1920s-2000s, MS.BZ.004, Image Collections and Fieldwork Archives, Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University, Washington, D.C.

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The Byzantine Institute and Dumbarton Oaks Fieldwork Records and Papers, ca. late 1920s-2000s

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Publish

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Copyright for Byzantine Institute materials belong to Dumbarton Oaks. However, permission to publish materials created by other correspondents must be obtained from the copyright holder.

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Under copyright

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Physical storage

  • Box: MS.BZ.004, Subgroup 01, Box 005